単語(英語) 単語(日本語) 英文
abiotic 生命力の欠如した Ecology is the study of the environment. It looks at the relationship between the biotic world and the (a ) (non-living) world they inhabit.
acquisition 獲得 The (a ) of land was more than a hobby for him.
alimentary canal 消化管 Food passes from the mouth into the gut or (a c ), a long tube running from the mouth to the anus.
allele 対立遺伝子 Each alternative form that a gene can have is called an (a ).
ambush 待ち伏せ Although the enemy force was smaller, their (a ) was very effective.
amino acid アミノ酸 Proteins are large molecules made up of smaller units called (a a ).
ammunition 弾薬 All of the (a ) was soaked.
Analgesics 鎮痛剤 (A ) are painkillers.
antibodies 抗体 Lymphocytes produce chemicals called (a ), which help phagocytes destroy pathogens or neutralize the poisons they produce.
antigen 抗原 Any pathogen that stimulates production of an antibody is called (a ).
arteries, veins, capillaries 動脈、静脈、毛細血管 This consists of the blood, a liquid which carries materials to and from the cells, the heart which pumps blood around the body and blood vessels ((a ), (v ) and (c )), tubes which carry blood.
Arthropods 節足動物 (A ) - animals with segmented bodies jointed legs and a hard exoskeleton.
Asexual reproduction 無性生殖 (A r ) is a form of reproduction that involves only one parent and creates organisms that are genetically identical to their parent.
atria, ventricles 心房、心室 The heart is a muscular organ which, unlike other muscles, never tires. It consists of four chambers: two (a ) and two (v ).
auxin 生物成長物質 The tip of a shoot produces an (a ) which has two important properties.
bicarbonate 重炭酸ナトリウム Add hydrochloric acid and boil for ten minutes. Let it cool, then add a little (b ) solution.
bronchi 気管支 The trachea divides into two branches, the (b )(sing. bronchus), which lead to the lungs.
bulbs 球根 Daffodils form (b ), short stems surrounded by fleshy leaves filled with food.
Canines 犬歯 (C ) are longer, more pointed teeth.
Carbohydrates 炭水化物 (C ) are an important source of energy.
Carnivores 肉食動物 (C ) eat meat.
cartilage 軟骨 The skeleton is made of two tissues called bone and (c ).
cartilage 軟骨 Rings of gristle, called (c ), support and keep the windpipe open.
cavalry, artillery 機甲隊、砲兵隊 He had never commanded (c ) or (a ).
cavities 虫歯 The bacteria release acids that dissolve the tooth's enamel and dentine, making (c )(holes) and causing slight toothache.
cell membrane 細胞膜 The (c m ) is a barrier between the cytoplasm and the cell's surroundings.
cellulose セルロース The cell wall is a strong mesh made of tough fibers called (c ).
Centipedes ムカデ類 (C ) - arthropods with many pairs of legs and one pair of antennae.
central nervous system, peripheral nervous system 中枢神経系、末梢神経系 The nervous system consists of two parts: the (c n s ) (CNS) and the (p n s ) (PNS).
centriole 中心小体 The (c ) is involved in cell division.
cerebellum 小脳 The (c ) is co-ordinates muscle movements and balance, as directed by the cerebrum.
cerebrum 大脳 The (c ) is the decision-making center.
chlorophyll 葉緑素 They contain a green pigment called (c ).
chloroplasts 葉緑体 (C ) are the structures that make plants green.
Chromosomes 染色体 (C ) are long, thread-like structures found in the nuclei of all cells.
cilia 繊毛 Ciliated cells are found in the nose and windpipe. On their surface they have thin strands of cytoplasm called (c ).
composed 落ち着いた His demeanor at all times (c ) and dignified.
condemned 強く非難する The royal governor promptly (c ) the measure, but Washington did not change his mind.
confiscate 没収する Their goal was to (c ) the gunpowder and cannonballs that had been collected.
Conifers 針葉樹 (C ) - cone-bearing plants which seeds but without flowers or fruits.
contraception 避妊 Conception includes fertilization, and the implantation of an embryo in the uterus. (C ) is any device which prevent this.
copulation 交尾 The two cells are brought together by a process called (c ).
cornea 角膜 The (c ) is a transparent disc in the front part of the sclera.
cytoplasm 細胞質 (C ) is a watery jelly-like solution in which all the chemical reactions of the cell (known as the metabolism) take place.
decently 見苦しくなく Have me (d ) buried, and do not let my body be put into the vault in less than two days after I am dead.
decomposers 腐生生物 All food chains also rely on (d ), saprophytic organisms that feed on the dead remains of plants and animals.
dedication 献身 Von Steuben spoke German and very little English, but his enthusiasm and (d ) were easily understood by all.
deferential 敬意を表する In conversation, he looks you full in the face, is deliberate, (d ), and engaging.
Dentine 象牙質 (D ) is a bone-like substance that supports the tooth.
Deoxyribonucleic acid デオキシリボ核酸 (D a ) is a large molecule twisted in a spiral staircase shape.
deserters 脱走兵 The British claimed that these sailors were actually British (d ).
diaphragm 横隔膜 (D ), a sheet of muscular tissue.
digestive juices 消化液 It is broken down physically by chewing, and chemically by the action of (d j ).
disband 解散する Perhaps they should not (d ), even if ordered to, until their claims were on.
dispersal 拡散 In order to prevent overcrowding and competition for space, light and water, seeds and fruits are carried away from the parent plant. This is called (d ).
dominant 優勢な A (d ) allele always affects an individual's phenotype, even when it is part of a heterozygous pair of alleles.
ecosystems 生態系 Habitats and communities that interact to create a self-sustaining unit are called (e ).
ejaculation 射精 This sets off a reflex action which results in semen being ejected into the vagina. This is called (e ).
embryos 胎児(胚子) While they are growing and developing, many organisms are called (e ).
enamel エナメル質 The (e ) is a hard layer surrounding the crown for biting and grinding.
endocrine 内分泌 The (e ) system is responsible for changes which affect the whole body, or take place over a long period of time.
endoplasmic reticulum 小胞体 The (e r ) transports materials around the cell.
enlisted 兵籍に入る Before long Lawrence (e ) with a colonial regiment serving with the British Navy, which was fighting the Spanish in the Caribbean.
epidermis 表皮 The (e ) protects the skin.
epithelium 上皮組織 Cells of the same type combine to form tissue. One of the simplest type of tissue is (e ), which is made up of pavement cells.
erectile 勃起性の Consists of a soft tissue called (e ) tissue, blood vessels and nerve endings.
evicted 立ち退かされる In 1786, after taxes were raised again, many farmers there fell into debt and were (e ) from their property by the courts.
evolution 進化 Many scientists believe that organisms have changed over many millions of years, becoming more and more complex. This is called (e ).
excretion 排せつ Metabolism produces some poisonous waste products which have to be removed. Getting rid of them is called (e ).
executive, legislative 行政の、立法の The delegates decided that under a constitution, the federal government would be divided into three branches - the (e ), the (l ), and the judicial.
eye-piece lens 接眼レンズ The (e l ) magnifies the image received by the objective lens, creating the image you see.
factions 党派 He was the only figure that the different political (f ) would happily accept.
fertilization 受精 Copulation may result in (f ), the fusing of the nuclei of the two gametes.
fetus 胎児 The growing embryo, also called (f ), becomes surrounded by an amniotic sac, a bag containing watery liquid called amniotic fluid.
flaccid しまりの無い If a plant is not getting enough water, the packing cells begin to shrink and become limp, or (f ), and the plant wilts.
floes 氷原 Instead, they found the river filled with ice (f ) rushing along in the current.
foes But he remained patient, refusing to create an incident that his (f ) might use against him.
food chain 食物連鎖 One species eats another, which in turn, is eaten by another species. This is called a (f ).
forded 歩いて渡れる程浅い In a month of traveling, the two Georges met Indians, (f ) rivers swollen with winter snow, saw rattlesnakes, traveled by canoe, and watched their tent carried off one night in a strong wind.
forks 分岐点 On the way there they met thirty-three members of the Ohio Company returning from the (f ).
fortify 強化する He therefore carelessly failed to (f ) Dorchester Heights, a strategically important site just south of Boston.
fungi 真菌 (F ) -organisms which cannot photosynthesize.
fungi Pathogenic (f ) usually affect the outside of rather than the inside of the body.
gall bladder 胆嚢 The liver produces a fluid called bile which is stored in the (g b ).
gargled うがいする Under the care of local doctors, he (g ) with a mixture of molasses, vinegar, and butter.
gastric juices 胃液 Food is chewed up with (g j ) in the stomach.
genes 遺伝子 DNA is arranged in units called (g ).
genetics 遺伝学 The study of inheritance is called (g ).
Germination 発芽 (G ) is the growth of a new plant from a seed.
gestation 妊娠 The time between implantation and birth called pregnancy, or (g ).
gills えら Fish use (g ) for gas exchange.
glands These juices contain enzymes, and are secreted by special organs, called (g ).
Glans 亀頭 (G ) - very sensitive tip of penis.
glucose ブドウ糖 One of the simplest carbohydrates is (g ), which is made by plants during photosynthesis.
glycerol グリセロール One fat molecule consists of three chains of chemical, called fatty acids, attached to one molecule of (g ).
glycogen グリコーゲン In animals, glucose molecules combine to form (g ) molecules.
golgi body ゴルジ体 The (g b ) collects and distributes the cell's products in special sacs.
Growth hormone 成長ホルモン (G h ) controls growth of bones and muscles.
grumbling 不平を言う They were not likely to re-enlist with an army that could not keep their stomachs from (g ).
habitat 生息地 The particular place where an organism lives is called its (h ).
Hallucinogens 幻覚剤 (H ) cause hallucinations, visual images that are sensed but don't actually exist.
hastily 急に While the war was in progress, regional differences and jealousies were (h ) put aside.
Herbivores 草食動物 (H ) eat plants.
hermaphrodites 雌雄同体 Most plants are (h ) , which means that each flower has both male and female sex organs.
homeostasis 恒常性 Keeping the body, and the chemicals inside it, in a stable condition is called (h ).
immunity 免疫 Active (i ) can be artificially brought on by injecting a weakened form of an antigen into the body; not enough to cause the disease, but enough to make the lymphocytes produce antibodies against it.
inaugurated 就任する On April 30, Washington was (i ) before a large crowd after traveling in a parade.
inauguration 就任 On March 3, 1797, the day before Adams's (i ), Washington pardoned ten men who were convicted of treason for their part in the Whisky Rebellion.
Incisors 切歯 (I ) are chisel-shaped teeth used for biting off small pieces of food.
indifferent 無関心な It was not the nave itself that appealed to him - he was (i ) to boats - so much as the prospect for adventure.
intensified 強められる The threat to Washington (i ) when the Board of War, which supervised war operations, was reorganized with his opponents in control.
joint 関節 A (j ) is where two or more bones meet.
labor 陣痛 Finally the baby is squeezed out through the vagina by strong contractions of the muscles in the uterus. This is called (l ).
large intestine 大腸 The (l i ) consists of the colon and the rectum.
ligaments 靭帯 They are joined together by inelastic fibers, called (l ).
locomotion 運動 Animals usually move their whole bodies and can travel from one place to another. This form of movement is called (l ).
locus 遺伝子座 At a specific position on a chromosome called a (l ) (pl. loci), homologous chromosome carry genes determining the same characteristic, or making the same chemical.
lymph tubes リンパ腺 The lymphatic system is a series of small (l t ) which join to form larger ducts.
Lymphocytes リンパ球 (L ) are made in swellings in the tubes of the lymphatic system, called lymph nodes.
magnification value 倍率 Each lens has a (m v ) which tells you how many times bigger it makes an object appear.
malnourished 栄養失調 People who do not eat healthily become (m ).
maneuvered 演習する The two sides (m ) here and there, and when the dust cleared, one side had won and the other had lost.
marrow In the center of bones there is a substance called (m ).
medulla 脊髄 The (m ), under the direction of the hypothalamus, controls some involuntary actions, such as heart rate.
menstruating 月経 If no embryo has implanted, the blood lining of the uterus breaks down and passes out of the vagina. This is called 'having a period' or (m ).
mesophyll 葉肉 Spongy (m ) cells are rounded cells, surrounded by air spaces, into and out of which gases diffuse.
metabolism 新陳代謝 Energy is needed for the (m ).
mingled 入り混じる At Mount Vernon and Belvoir, George (m ) with a sophisticated and educated group of people.
mitochondrion ミトコンドリア The (m ) is where respiration takes place.
mitosis 有糸分裂 To allow growth to continue, the cell divides to form new cells, which in turn, grow and divide. This type of cell division is called (m ), and is the basis of all growth.
Molars 臼歯 (M ) and premolars are the cheek teeth.
Mollusks 軟体動物 (M )- soft-bodied animals with shells.
morale 士気 It boosted the (m ) and stature of the new American government.
mutation 突然変異 Variation is also caused by (m ), a permanent change in the genetic material of a cell.
mutiny 暴動 Negotiations ended the (m ), but the settlement was expensive.
natural selection 自然選択 The theory of (n s ) states that the individual organism best adapted to the environment will survive.
nectar 花蜜 In some plants it produces a sugary liquid called (n ).
neurons ニューロン The nerve cells that make up the PNS and CNS are called (n ).
Nucleic acids 核酸 (N a ) are molecules found in the cell's nucleus.
nucleus The (n ) is the 'control center' of the cell, containing long thin threads called chromosomes.
obese 肥満 When people eat too much the extra food is stored under their skin and they become (o ).
objective lens 対物レンズ The (o l ) magnifies the specimen, producing the image which is in turn magnified by the eye-piece lens.
offspring 子孫 All living things produce new versions of themselves, called their (o ).
Omnivores 雑食動物 (O ) eat both plants and meat.
organelle 細胞器官 Each part of the cell, called an (o ), is like a different department doing its own job.
osmoregulation 浸透圧調整 The kidneys control the water potential of the body fluids by regulating the amount of water and dissolved substances that are reabsorbed in the blood from the enthrone. This is called (o ).
Osmosis 浸透 (O ) is the flow of water across a selectively-permeable membrane, from a weak to a strong solution.
ovulation 排卵 After the onset of puberty, one egg matures every 28 days and is released into the oviduct. This is called (o ) and is part of the menstrual cycle.
ovum 卵子 In humans, a female sex cell, called an egg or (o ), joins a male sex cell, called a sperm.
pancreas すい臓 The (p ) produces pancreatic juice.
parasites 寄生虫 Other feed on living organisms and are called (p ).
pathogen 病原菌 Some are caused by parasitic organisms, called (p ), which live in or off another living.
peristalsis ぜん動運動 While the longitudinal muscles relax, the circular muscles contract, pushing food along the gut. This is called (p ).
Phagocytes 食細胞 (P ) engulf bacteria and digest them in a special food vacuole.
photosynthesis 光合成 Unlike animals, however, plants can make their own food by a chemical process called (p ).
placenta 胎盤 After a few weeks, however, a special plate-shaped organ develops, called the (p ).
plaque 歯垢 Bacteria in the mouth feed on sugar left on the teeth and form a mixture called (p ).
Plasma 血漿 (P ) is a watery liquid which transports dissolved food and waste.
Platelets 血小板 (P ) are tiny cell fragments important in blood clotting.
pledge 誓約する When the Americans did not immediately (p ) support for the French, he began traveling around making speeches.
ploys 策略 His mind was uncluttered by schemes and (p ).
pollination 授粉 The first stage of sexual reproduction in flowering plants is (p ).
Proclamation 宣言 King George III issued the (P ) of 1763, which banned settlement west of the Appalachian.
Puberty 思春期 (P ) is a series of body changes, stimulated by hormones from the pituitary gland and sex organs, which make a person capable of reproducing.
pupil 瞳孔 The iris is an opaque disc with a central hole, called the (p ).
rebel 反逆 Although it was important that he reach his army, he also needed to draw more support to the (r ) cause.
receptor 受容器官 (R ) - a cell or group of cells, called sensory cells, sensitive to a particular stimulus.
recessive 劣勢な A (r ) allele only affects the phenotype when it is part of a homozygous pair.
Red blood cells 赤血球 (R b c ) are disc-shaped cells are disc-shaped cells made in the bone marrow.
reproduction 生殖 Sexual (r ) creates offspring by joining together a male and a female sex cell.
respiration 呼吸 All living things get energy from food in a process called (r ).
retina 網膜 The (r ) is the innermost layer of tissue at the back of the eyeball.
retreating 退却した The (r ) British sailed from Boston to New York City.
Ribosomes リボゾーム (R ) held build up complex substances called proteins.
roughage 繊維質 It cannot be digested by mammals, but it is important because it provides (r ), coarse material which helps food move through the gut.
saliva だ液 Food is chewed and mixed with (s ) in the mouth.
scurvy 壊血病 Lack of vitamin C causes a disease called (s ) in which the skin and gums bleed.
Sedatives 鎮静剤 (S ) are drugs that slow down the brain.
sentries 見張り番 They are as cold as we are, thought the (s ).
skeleton 骨格 A (s ) is one kind of support.
small intestine 小腸 The (s i ) consists of the duodenum and the ileum.
speculated in 投機する As a private citizen, Dinwiddle was also a member of the Ohio Company, a business group that (s i ) and developed land grants.
squire 大地主 In fact, he enjoyed being a country (s ).
squirmed 不快に耐える George was a polite and dutiful son, but he (s ) under his mother's gaze and longed to escape from it.
Stamen おしべ (S ) - male reproductive part.
starch でんぷん In plants, glucose molecules join together to form larger carbohydrate molecules called (s ).
Stimulants 刺激剤 (S ) speed up the brain and make it more alert.
substrate 基質 Each enzyme attaches itself to one type of molecule, called the (s ), and builds it up or break it down into new molecules called products.
testicle 睾丸 (T ) - place where sperm are made once puberty is reached.
thorax 胸部 In humans the lungs are the main respiratory surface. They are found side-by-side in the (t ).
Thyroxine 甲状腺ホルモン (T ) controls rate of metabolism and rate that glucose is used up in respiration.
traitorous 反逆の Although Lee's behavior bordered on treason, and he was later court-martialed, it was not the only (t ) act of the war.
Transpiration 発散 (T ) is the evaporation of water out of the plant, through pores in the leaves called stomata.
tropisms 屈性 Most plants responses involve growth either away from or towards a stimulus. These responses are called (t ) and are controlled by plant hormones called auxins.
turgid はれ上がった Packing cells in this condition are said to be (t ).
umbilical cord へその緒 The body is connected to the placenta by a cord, called the (u c ).
urea 尿素 The part of amino acid which contains nitrogen is converted to a substance called (u ) and is excreted.
ureter 尿管 Urine passes from the nephron into a tube called the (u ).
urethra 尿道 The ureter carries urine to the bladder from where it is expelled from the body through a tube called the (u ).
urine 尿 The remaining waste solution is called (u ) and consists of salts, water and urea.
Uterus 子宮 (U ) or womb - hollow organ in which a fertilized ovum develops.
vacuole 液胞 The large (v ) is a fluid-filled sac which holds water and the products of the cell's metabolism.
ventilation 排気 The movement of air in and out of the lungs is called (v ).
villi じゅう毛 The surface area of the ileum is greatly increased by thousand of small fingerlike projections called (v ).
White blood cells 白血球 (W b c ) are large cells, important in body defense.
Xylem 木質部 (X ) carries water and minerals up the plant (see below).
zygote 接合子 Most multicellular animals and plants begin life as a single cell, called a (z ).


Copyright (C) 2008 KUNISAN.JP. All Rights Reserved.